Attributes of Allah - His Existence precedes non-existence
He who assigns to Him (different) conditions does not believe in His oneness,
nor does he who likens Him grasp His reality. He who illustrates Him does not
signify Him. He who points at Him and imagines Him does not mean Him. Everything
that is known through itself has been created, and everything that exists by
virtue of other things is the effect (of a cause). He works but not with the
help of instruments. He fixes measures but not with the activity of thinking.
He is rich but not by acquisition.
Times do not keep company with Him, and implements do not help Him. His Being
precedes times. His Existence precedes non-existence and His eternity precedes
By His creating the senses it is known that He has no senses. By the contraries
in various matters it is known that He has no contrary, and by the similarity
between things it is known that there is nothing similar to Him. He has made
light the contrary of darkness, brightness that of gloom, dryness that of moisture
and heat that of cold. He produces affection among inimical things.
He fuses together diverse things, brings near remote things and separates things
which are joined together. He is not confined by limits, nor counted by numbers.
Material parts can surround things of their own kind, and organs can point out
things similar to themselves. The word(1) "mundhu" (i.e. since) disproves
their eternity, the word "qad" (that denotes nearness of time of occurrence),
disproves their being from ever and the word "lawla" (if it were not)
keep them remote from perfection.
Through them the Creator manifests Himself to the intelligence, and through
them He is guarded from the sight of the eyes.
Stillness and motion do not occur in Him, and how can that thing occur in Him
which He has Himself made to occur, and how can a thing revert to Him which
He first created, and how can a thing appear in Him which He first brought to
appearance. If it had not been so, His Self would have become subject to diversity,
His Being would have become divisible (into parts), and His reality would have
been prevented from being deemed Eternal.
If there was a front to Him there would have been a rear also for Him . He
would need completing only if shortage befell Him. In that case signs of the
created would appear in Him, and He would become a sign (leading to other objects)
instead of signs leading to Him. Through the might of His abstention (from affectedness)
He is far above being affected by things which effect others.
He is that which does not change or vanish. The process of setting does not
behove Him. He has not begotten any one lest He be regarded as having been born.
He has not been begotten otherwise He would be contained within limits. He is
too High to have sons. He is too purified to contact women. Imagination cannot
reach Him so as to assign Him quantity.
Understanding cannot think of Him so as to give him shape. Senses do not perceive
Him so as to feel Him. Hands cannot touch Him so as to rub against Him. He does
not change into any condition. He does not pass from one state to another. Nights
and days do not turn Him old. Light and darkness do not alter Him.
It cannot be said that He has a limit or extremity, or end or termination;
nor do things control Him so as to raise Him or lower Him, nor does anything
carry Him so as to bend Him or keep Him erect. He is not inside things nor outside
them. He conveys news, but not with the tongue or voice. He listens, but not
with the holes of the ears or the organs of hearing. He says, but does not utter
words. He remembers, but does not memorise.
He determines, but not by exercising His mind. He loves and approves without
any sentimentality (of heart). He hates and feels angry without any painstaking.
When He intends to create someone He says "Be" and there he is, but
not through a voice that strikes (the ears) is that call heard. His speech is
an act of His creation. His like never existed before this. If had been eternal
it would have been the second god.
It cannot be said that He came into being after He had not been in existence
because in that case the attributes of the created things would be assigned
to Him and there would remain no difference between them and Him, and He would
have no distinction over them. Thus, the Creator and the created would become
equal and the initiator and the initiated would be on the same level. He created
(the whole of) creation without any example made by someone else, and He did
not secure the assistance of any one out of His creation for creating it.
He created the earth and suspended it without being busy, retained it without
support, made it stand without legs, raised it without pillars, protected it
against bendings and curvings and defended it against crumbling and splitting
(into parts). He fixed mountains on it like stumps, solidified its rocks, caused
its streams to flow and opened wide its valleys.
Whatever He made did not suffer from any flow, and whatever He strengthened
did not show any weakness.
He manifests Himself over the earth with His authority and greatness. He is
aware of its inside through his knowledge and understanding. He has power over
every thing in the earth by virtue of His sublimity and dignity. Nothing from
the earth that he may ask for defies Him, nor does it oppose Him so as to overpower
No swift-footed creature can run away from Him so as to surpass Him. He is
not needy towards any possessing person so that he should feed Him. All things
bow to Him and are humble before His greatness. They cannot flee away from His
authority to someone else in order to escape His benefit or His harm. There
is no parallel for Him who may match Him and no one like Him so as to equal
He will destroy the earth after its existence, till all that exists on it will
become non-existent. But the extinction of the world after its creation is no
stranger than its first formation and invention. How could it be? Even if all
the animals of the earth, whether birds or beasts, stabled cattle or pasturing
ones, of different origins and species, dull people and sagacious men -- all
jointly try to create (even) a mosquito they are not able to bring it into being
and do not understand what is the way to its creation. Their wits are bewildered
Their powers fall short and fail, and return disappointed and tired, knowing
that they are defeated and admitting their inability to produce it, also realising
that they are too weak (even) to destroy it.
Surely, after the extinction of the world, Allah the Glorified will remain
alone with nothing else beside Him. He will be, after its extinction, as He
was before its production: without time or place or moment or period. At this
moment, period and time will not exist, and years and hours will disappear.
There will be nothing except Allah, the One, the All-powerful.
To Him is the return of all matters. Its initial creation was not in its power;
and the prevention of its extinction was (also) not in its power.
If it had the power to prevent it, it would have existed for ever. When He
made anything of the world, the making of it did not cause Him any difficulty,
and the creation of anything which He created and formed did not fatigue Him.
He did not create it to heighten His authority nor for fear of loss or harm,
nor to seek its help against an overwhelming foe, nor to guard against any avenging
opponent with its help, nor for the extension of His domain by its help, nor
for boasting (over largeness of His possession) against a partner, nor because
He felt lonely and desired to seek its company.
Then after its creation He will destroy it, but not because any worry has overcome
Him in its upkeep and administration, nor for any pleasure that will accrue
to Him, nor for the cumbrousness of anything over Him. The length of its life
does not weary Him so as to induce Him to its quick destruction. But Allah,
the Glorified, has maintained it with His kindness, kept it intact with His
command and perfected it with His power.
Then after its destruction, He will resuscitate it, but not for any need of His own towards it, nor to seek the assistance of any of its things against it, nor to change over from the condition of loneliness to that of company, nor from the condition of ignorance and blindness to that of knowledge and search, nor from paucity and need towards needlessness and plenty, nor from disgrace and lowliness towards honour and prestige.
Nahjul Balagha, Sermon 186